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Capital: A Critique of Political Economy (3 Volumes) by Karl Marx (Author), Ben Fowkes (Translator), Ernest Mandel (Introduction)

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Capital: A Critique of Political Economy (3 Volumes) by Karl Marx  (Author), Ben Fowkes (Translator), Ernest Mandel (Introduction)
   
  
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'Capital: A Critique of Political Economy: Volume 1'
By Karl Marx  (Author), Ben Fowkes (Translator), Ernest Mandel (Introduction)

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'Capital: A Critique of Political Economy: Volume 2' 
By Karl Marx  (Author), Ben Fowkes (Translator), Ernest Mandel (Introduction)

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'Capital: A Critique of Political Economy: Volume 3' 
By Karl Marx  (Author), Ben Fowkes (Translator), Ernest Mandel (Introduction)

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Description:

One of the most notorious works of modern times, as well as one of the most influential, 
Capital is an incisive critique of private property and the social relations it generates. Living in exile in England, where this work was largely written, Marx drew on a wide-ranging knowledge of its society to support his analysis and create fresh insights. Arguing that capitalism would cause an ever-increasing division in wealth and welfare, he predicted its abolition and replacement by a system with common ownership of the means of production. Capital rapidly acquired readership among the leaders of social democratic parties, particularly in Russia in Germany, and ultimately throughout the world, to become a work described by Marx friend and collaborator Friedrich Engels as “the Bible of the working class.”

For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. With more than 1,700 titles, Penguin Classics represents a global bookshelf of the best works throughout history and across genres and disciplines. Readers trust the series to provide authoritative texts enhanced by introductions and notes by distinguished scholars and contemporary authors, as well as up-to-date translations by award-winning translators.

 
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The very famous German political theorist, sociologist and economist who wrote The Communist Manifesto with Friederich Engels and Das Capital, Marx is not technically speaking a philosopher but a social theorist although he has had great influence in certain political and philosophical circles. He studied both history and philosophy and was influenced by Hegel but also by socialist writers and ideas especially  when he went to Paris. While in exile in Brussels, he wrote The Communist Manifesto containing his whole social philosophy. He then returned to Germany for a while where, as a result of the Socialist Revolution of 1848, his ideas had become somewhat more acceptable. But soon he was forced to leave Germany again this time for England where he spent the rest of his life and where he wrote his magnum opus, Das Capital,
which is the analysis of the economics of capitalism. 

In this work Marx developed the idea that man's existence is based on his creativity to exert labor upon the objects of nature and to produce goods~ therefore, the whole species should enjoy the fruit of this labor. According to Marx, this has not, however, been the case since the work- ing class is oppressed by those who possess capital. There is, therefore, a constant class warfare between the workers who perform the labor and the "bourgeoisie" who possess the capital. Marx asserted that the goal of history is the creation a classless society, a goal which must be brought about through revolution. He asserted that the whole process of history has been based on the struggle between various classes on the basis of economic factors. Marx believed that he had corrected the Hegelian idea of dialectical philosophy by considering the dialectical process to be purely material. He thereby developed what is now so well-known as dialectical materialism which was the philosophical foundation of Communism and still remains so for those who follow the Communist ideology or are philosophical Marxists. Although he showed great care and compassion towards the poor, Marx was virulently anti-religious and atheistic and believed that religion, which he called "the opium of the people" was one of the main elements that caused the subjugation of one class and one group of people by another and was therefore the source of injustice in society. 

(Seyyed Hossein Nasr)
 
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