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Traditional Islamic Calligraphy Posters and Photos

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    High quality matte photograph of Ottoman Hilye manuscript by Mehmed Tahir describing the Prophet Muhammed (ﷺ).


    The hilyah, or hilye-i sherife, is the verbal description of the physical characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad, as recorded by his son-in-law and cousin, ‘Ali ibn abi Talib. Its diagrammatic form, attributed to the Ottoman calligrapher Hafız ‘Osman (d 1698), presents the text in a central roundel, often outlined by a crescent, enclosed in a rectangle. The text continues in an oblong panel at the foot of the page. At each corner of the central rectangle are cloud panels with the names of the Orthodox caliphs, and above and below are panels of inscription, normally the basmalah and one or more Qur’anic verses. The writing of the hilyah was a work of piety, but it was also designed to evoke reverence in the viewer, and has amuletic properties

    Mehmed Tahir (d 1845), was one of the most brilliant students of Mahmud Celalüddin, and is said to have even surpassed his teacher in writing the monumental or jali scripts.  His fame and skill were such that later in life he became the calligraphy master of Sultan Abdülmejid I (r 1839–1861) and then of the children of Sultan ‘Abdülhamid II (r 1876–1909).

    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 192
     
    Country of Origin: Turkey

    Subject: Hilye (Description of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ)
    Calligrapher: Mehmed Tahir
    Height: 42 x 29.5 cm

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    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 603

    High quality canvas replica of The Ashtiname of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. It measures 57 x 112 cm which is the same size as the original document. For an additional £10, an in-house certificate will be provided containing a translation of the letter.

    The Ashtiname of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, also known as the Covenant or Testament (Testamentum), is a document which is a charter ratified by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ granting protection and other privileges to the followers of Jesus the Nazarene, given to the Christian monks of Saint Catherine's Monastery. It is sealed with an imprint of Prophet Muhammad's ﷺ hand.

    Āshtīnāmeh is a Persian word meaning "Book of Peace", a Persian term for a treaty and covenant.

    English Translation of the Ashtiname by Anton F. Haddad

    This is a letter which was issued by Mohammed, Ibn Abdullah, the Messenger, the Prophet, the Faithful, who is sent to all the people as a trust on the part of God to all His creatures, that they may have no plea against God hereafter. Verily God is Omnipotent, the Wise. This letter is directed to the embracers of Islam, as a covenant given to the followers of Jesus the Nazarene in the East and West, the far and near, the Arabs and foreigners, the known and the unknown.

    This letter contains the oath given unto them, and he who disobeys that which is therein will be considered a disbeliever and a transgressor to that whereunto he is commanded. He will be regarded as one who has corrupted the oath of God, disbelieved His Testament, rejected His Authority, despised His Religion, and made himself deserving of His Curse, whether he is a Sultan or any other believer of Islam. Whenever Christian monks, devotees and pilgrims gather together, whether in a mountain or valley, or den, or frequented place, or plain, or church, or in houses of worship, verily we are [at the] back of them and shall protect them, and their properties and their morals, by Myself, by My Friends and by My Assistants, for they are of My Subjects and under My Protection.

    I shall exempt them from that which may disturb them; of the burdens which are paid by others as an oath of allegiance. They must not give anything of their income but that which pleases them—they must not be offended, or disturbed, or coerced or compelled. Their judges should not be changed or prevented from accomplishing their offices, nor the monks disturbed in exercising their religious order, or the people of seclusion be stopped from dwelling in their cells.

    No one is allowed to plunder these Christians, or destroy or spoil any of their churches, or houses of worship, or take any of the things contained within these houses and bring it to the houses of Islam. And he who takes away anything therefrom, will be one who has corrupted the oath of God, and, in truth, disobeyed His Messenger.

    Jizya should not be put upon their judges, monks, and those whose occupation is the worship of God; nor is any other thing to be taken from them, whether it be a fine, a tax or any unjust right. Verily I shall keep their compact, wherever they may be, in the sea or on the land, in the East or West, in the North or South, for they are under My Protection and the testament of My Safety, against all things which they abhor.

    No taxes or tithes should be received from those who devote themselves to the worship of God in the mountains, or from those who cultivate the Holy Lands. No one has the right to interfere with their affairs, or bring any action against them. Verily this is for aught else and not for them; rather, in the seasons of crops, they should be given a Kadah for each Ardab of wheat as provision for them, and no one has the right to say to them 'this is too much', or ask them to pay any tax.

    As to those who possess properties, the wealthy and merchants, the poll-tax to be taken from them must not exceed twelve drachmas a head per year.

    They shall not be imposed upon by anyone to undertake a journey, or to be forced to go to wars or to carry arms; for the Muslims have to fight for them. Do no dispute or argue with them, but deal according to the verse recorded in the Quran, to wit: ‘Do not dispute or argue with the People of the Book but in that which is best’ [29:46]. Thus they will live favored and protected from everything which may offend them by the Callers to religion (Islam), wherever they may be and in any place they may dwell.

    Should any Christian woman be married to a Muslim, such marriage must not take place except after her consent, and she must not be prevented from going to her church for prayer. Their churches must be honored and they must not be withheld from building churches or repairing convents.

    They must not be forced to carry arms or stones; but the Muslims must protect them and defend them against others. It is positively incumbent upon every one of the follower of Islam not to contradict or disobey this oath until the Day of Resurrection and the end of the world.

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    Divine Name Allah in Maghrebi script from Morocco. The poster is printed on high-quality photograph matt paper.

    Detailed Description:

    Item number: 3

    Translation of Main Calligraphy: Allah, May his glory be glorified! 
    Style: Maghrebi
    Length: 30.50 cm
    Width: 41 cm

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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the contemporary traditional Islamic calligraphy of Mehmet Memiş from Turkey. Assistant Prof. Dr. Mehmet Memiş was born in Çorum, Bayat in 1960. He graduated from the Faculty of Religious Studies at Konya University. While studying in Konya, he learned calligraphy from Hüseyin Öksüz. In 1985, Memiş was appointed to Kadıköy K. Atatürk Middle School. He continued his calligraphy work with Hasan Çelebi in Istanbul. In 1985-1988, Memiş attended Turkish Decorative Arts Course at the Topkapı Palace Museum. He learned nesta′likand Divanî scripts from Prof. Ali Alparslan in 1989-1990; and received a professional license in Sülüs-Nesih scripts from Hüseyin Öksüz in 1992. Memiş completed master′s degree at the Department of Traditional Turkish Handicrafts in the Faculty of Fine Arts of Marmara University in 1993. In the same year, he started teaching Turkish and Islamic Art History in the Faculty of Religious Studies at Harran University. After completing his doctoral degree in Turkish and Islamic Art History at Marmara University in 1998, Memiş started teaching Turkish and Islamic Art History as an assistant professor in the Faculty of Religious Studies at Sakarya University. He has also taught calligraphy in the Faculty of Fine Arts at the same university. Dr. Memiş has participated in numerous group exhibitions in Turkey and abroad, and has received 9 awards. He has also held his three solo exhibitions. Dr. Memiş currently continues teaching at Sakarya University.



    About the Hilye:

    The term hilya (Arabic حلية (plural: ḥilan, ḥulan), Turkish: hilye (plural: hilyeler) denotes a religious genre of Ottoman Turkish literature, dealing with the physical description of Muhammad. Hilya literally means "ornament".

    They originate with the discipline of shama'il, the study of Muhammad's appearance and character, based on hadith accounts, most notably Tirmidhi's al-Shama'il al-Muhamadiyyah wa al-Khasa'il al-Mustafawiyyah ("The Sublime Characteristics of Muhammad").

    In Ottoman-era folk Islam, there was a belief that reading and possessing Muhammad's description protects the person from trouble in this world and the next, it became customary to carry such descriptions, rendered in fine calligraphy and illuminated, as amulets. In 17th-century OttomanTurkey, hilyes developed into an art form with a standard layout, often framed and used as a wall decoration.

    Later hilyes were also written for the first four Caliphs, the companions of Muhammad, Muhammad's grandchildren (Hasan and Hussein) and Islamic saints (walis).

    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 417

    Country of Origin: Turkey

    Subject: Hilye Sherif
    Calligrapher: Mehmet Memiş
    Edition: Limited
    Size: 46 X 68 cm

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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the contemporary traditional Islamic calligraphy of Mehmet Özçay from Turkey. Mehmet Özçay was born in Çankaya, Trabzon in 1961. He finished primary and middle school education in Gerede. He graduated from the Faculty of Theology at Atatürk University in 1986. He learned nesih and sülüs scripts from Fuat Başar, and obtained his professional license from the master.


    In 1986 and 1989, Özçay participated in the international calligraphy competitions, which were organized by the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) and won six prizes in various categories. In 1992, he copied and wrote the Holy Qur’an and published it in 1992. The book “Spoken by the Hand, Heart by the Eye” which is the selection of his calligraphy works spanning 25 years, was published in English and Arabic in 2007.

    Özçay has had many solo exhibitions, and has participated in numerous international group exhibitions in Turkey and abroad. He has also served as a jury member in many international calligraphy competitions. He has established his own style in colored scribble (karalama) panels which are written with celi sülüs and celi nesih scripts. His calligraphy works can be seen in various national and international museums and private collections. Currently, Özçay continues to work at his workshop in Istanbul.

    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 416

    Country of Origin: Turkey

    Subject: bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm in Thuluth (In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful)
    Calligrapher: Mehmet Özçay
    Illumination: Belgin Tuna 
    Edition: Limited
    Size: 22.5 x 45.5 cm

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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the contemporary traditional Islamic calligraphy of Mehmet Özçay from Turkey. Mehmet Özçay was born in Çankaya, Trabzon in 1961. He finished primary and middle school education in Gerede. He graduated from the Faculty of Theology at Atatürk University in 1986. He learned nesih and sülüs scripts from Fuat Başar, and obtained his professional license from the master.


    In 1986 and 1989, Özçay participated in the international calligraphy competitions, which were organized by the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) and won six prizes in various categories. In 1992, he copied and wrote the Holy Qur’an and published it in 1992. The book “Spoken by the Hand, Heart by the Eye” which is the selection of his calligraphy works spanning 25 years, was published in English and Arabic in 2007.

    Özçay has had many solo exhibitions, and has participated in numerous international group exhibitions in Turkey and abroad. He has also served as a jury member in many international calligraphy competitions. He has established his own style in colored scribble (karalama) panels which are written with celi sülüs and celi nesih scripts. His calligraphy works can be seen in various national and international museums and private collections. Currently, Özçay continues to work at his workshop in Istanbul.

    The verses of Ayat al-Kursi, on this poster, translates to:

    Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave ? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.
     
    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 404

    Subject: Ayat al-Kursi in Thuluth script
    Edition: Limited
    Calligrapher: Mehmed Özçay
    Illumination: Arda Çakmak
    Size: 35 x 47 cm

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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the contemporary traditional Islamic calligraphy of Ali Hüsrevoğlu from Turkey. Ali Hüsrevoğlu was born in Afyonkarahisar in 1956. He graduated from the Faculty of Theology at Marmara University in 1979. Hüsrevoğlu began learning calligraphy in 1974. He received a professional license from the great master Hamid Aytaç in 1982. In 1992, Hüsrevoğlu prepared the calligraphy for the project of the Medine-i Münevvere in the Mescid-i Nebevi. Since 1993, he has had many solo exhibitions and has participated in numerous group exhibitions and conferences in Turkey and abroad. He has received many awards for his calligraphy works. Currently, Hüsrevoğlu continues to create classic and modern calligraphy works at his workshop in Istanbul.

     
    The verses of Ayat al-Kursi translates to:

    Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave ? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.
     
    Detailed Description:
     
    Item Number: 402
      
    Country of Origin: Turkey

    Subject: Ayat al-Kursi
    Edition: Limited
    Calligrapher: Ali Hüsrevoğlu
    Size: 48 x 48 cm

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    Lehnert & Landrock were a German-Bohemian photography duo. Their hand-tinted photographs featured Egyptian and Tunisian monuments and, more controversially, eroticized images of Arab women posed within harem scenes. Lehnert & Landrock’s photographs attempted to embody a romanticized vision of the Arab world held by Europe, intetended to titillate rather than serve as a true document of everyday life in the region. The artists were Rudolf Franz Lehnert, born on July 13, 1878 in Velká Úpa, Bohemia, and Ernst Heinrich Landrock, born on August 4, 1878 in Reinsdorf, Germany. Upon returning from a trip to North Africa, Lehnert met Landrock in Switzerland and the two decided to go into business together. Lehnert acted as the photographer and Landrock organized the expeditions, photolab, and marketing of postcards, posters, and prints. They lived both in Tunis and Cairo but periodically made trips back to Europe throughout their lives. Today, their works can be found in the collections of the Penn Museum Archives in Philadelphia, the Musée de l’Elysée in Lausanne, and the San Francisco State University Museum, among others. Lehnert died on January 16, 1948 in Reydef, Tunisia, and Landrock died on April 30, 1966 in Kreuzlingen, Switzerland.

    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 197

    Photo: Ouled Nail couple from Algeria
    Date of original photograph: 1904
    Type: Photo printed on  high-quality matt photograph paper
    Size: A4
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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the contemporary traditional Islamic calligraphy of Mehmet Özçay from Turkey. Mehmet Özçay was born in Çankaya, Trabzon in 1961. He finished primary and middle school education in Gerede. He graduated from the Faculty of Theology at Atatürk University in 1986. He learned nesih and sülüs scripts from Fuat Başar, and obtained his professional license from the master.

    In 1986 and 1989, Özçay participated in the international calligraphy competitions, which were organized by the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) and won six prizes in various categories. In 1992, he copied and wrote the Holy Qur’an and published it in 1992. The book “Spoken by the Hand, Heart by the Eye” which is the selection of his calligraphy works spanning 25 years, was published in English and Arabic in 2007.

    Özçay has had many solo exhibitions, and has participated in numerous international group exhibitions in Turkey and abroad. He has also served as a jury member in many international calligraphy competitions. He has established his own style in colored scribble (karalama) panels which are written with celi sülüs and celi nesih scripts. His calligraphy works can be seen in various national and international museums and private collections. Currently, Özçay continues to work at his workshop in Istanbul.
     
    Detailed Description:
     
    Item Number: 415
     
    Subject: Masha' Allah wa la quwata ila bi'illah in Thuluth style (God has willed and there is no power except through God)
    Edition: Limited
    Calligrapher:  Mehmet Özçay
    Country of Origin: Turkey
    Size:  20 x 60 cm
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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the contemporary traditional Islamic calligraphy of Ayten Tiryaki-Şeyda Gönen from Turkey. Ayten Tiryaki was born in Ordu in 1961. She graduated from the Faculty of Theology at Ankara University. She completed her master’s degree at her alma mater in 1983. In the same year, Tiryaki started learning calligraphy from Hasan Çelebi, and illumination art (Tezhip) from Prof. Dr. Çiçek Derman and Assistant Prof. İnci Ayan Birol. Tiryaki obtained her professional license in illumination art from Prof. Dr. Derman; and in calligraphy from Hasan Çelebi. Tiryaki has participated in many group exhibitions in Turkey and abroad, and has received numerous awards. Her works can be seen in various private collections. Currently, Tiryaki continues to work and teaches at the Burhaniye Culture Center, the Şehbal Culture Center and her workshop in Istanbul.
     
    Detailed Description:
     
    Item Number: 400
     
    Subject: 99 Names of God (asmāʾu l-ḥusnā)
    Edition: Limited
    Calligrapher: Ayten Tiryaki-Şeyda Gönen
    Country of Origin: Turkey
    Size: 48 x 48 cm
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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the traditional Islamic Ottoman calligraphy of Ayten Tiryaki. Ayten Tiryaki was born in Ordu in 1961. In 1983 he graduated from the Faculty of Theology of Ankara University with a master's degree. He continued his studies on classical arts he started in Ankara in 1978 in Istanbul. In 1983, Tiryaki began to receive calligraphy lessons from Hattat Hasan Çelebi. In 1989, he received his first call as a female calligrapher from his son Çelebi. Çiçek Derman and İnci Ayan Birol also received a grant for illumination. Tiryaki participated in many exhibitions both at home and abroad. There are books and plates printed by the artist whose works are found in various collections. Tiryaki, who continues to educate students and art in line and illumination courses, has given illumination to fifteen students and seventeen students to date.


    About the Hilye:

    The term hilya (Arabic حلية (plural: ḥilan, ḥulan), Turkish: hilye (plural: hilyeler) denotes a religious genre of Ottoman Turkish literature, dealing with the physical description of Muhammad. Hilya literally means "ornament".

    They originate with the discipline of shama'il, the study of Muhammad's appearance and character, based on hadith accounts, most notably Tirmidhi's al-Shama'il al-Muhamadiyyah wa al-Khasa'il al-Mustafawiyyah ("The Sublime Characteristics of Muhammad").

    In Ottoman-era folk Islam, there was a belief that reading and possessing Muhammad's description protects the person from trouble in this world and the next, it became customary to carry such descriptions, rendered in fine calligraphy and illuminated, as amulets. In 17th-century OttomanTurkey, hilyes developed into an art form with a standard layout, often framed and used as a wall decoration.

    Later hilyes were also written for the first four Caliphs, the companions of Muhammad, Muhammad's grandchildren (Hasan and Hussein) and Islamic saints (walis).

    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 427

    Country of Origin: Turkey
    Subject: Hilye Sherif
    Calligrapher: Ayten Tiryaki
    Edition: Limited
    Size: 65 x 97 cm

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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the traditional Islamic Ottoman calligraphy of Yesarizade Mustafa Izzet Efendi. Yesarizade Mustafa Izzet Efendi (Modern Turkish: Yesârîzâde Mustafa Izzet Efendi) (d. 1849) was an Ottoman calligrapher. He was born in Istanbul and was the son of the calligrapher Mehmed Esad Yesari. After studying calligraphy, he served as a Kazasker of Rumelia. Mustafa became a well known calligrapher in his own right, and taught students in court.


    About the Hilye:

    The term hilya (Arabic حلية (plural: ḥilan, ḥulan), Turkish: hilye (plural: hilyeler) denotes a religious genre of Ottoman Turkish literature, dealing with the physical description of Muhammad. Hilya literally means "ornament".

    They originate with the discipline of shama'il, the study of Muhammad's appearance and character, based on hadith accounts, most notably Tirmidhi's al-Shama'il al-Muhamadiyyah wa al-Khasa'il al-Mustafawiyyah ("The Sublime Characteristics of Muhammad").

    In Ottoman-era folk Islam, there was a belief that reading and possessing Muhammad's description protects the person from trouble in this world and the next, it became customary to carry such descriptions, rendered in fine calligraphy and illuminated, as amulets. In 17th-century OttomanTurkey, hilyes developed into an art form with a standard layout, often framed and used as a wall decoration.

    Later hilyes were also written for the first four Caliphs, the companions of Muhammad, Muhammad's grandchildren (Hasan and Hussein) and Islamic saints (walis).

    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 426

    Country of Origin: Turkey
    Subject: Hilye Sherif
    Calligrapher: Yesarizade Mustafa Izzet Efendi
    Edition: Limited
    Size: 50 x 74 cm

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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the contemporary traditional Islamic calligraphy of Mehmet Özçay from Turkey. Mehmet Özçay was born in Çankaya, Trabzon in 1961. He finished primary and middle school education in Gerede. He graduated from the Faculty of Theology at Atatürk University in 1986. He learned nesih and sülüs scripts from Fuat Başar, and obtained his professional license from the master.

    In 1986 and 1989, Özçay participated in the international calligraphy competitions, which were organized by the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) and won six prizes in various categories. In 1992, he copied and wrote the Holy Qur’an and published it in 1992. The book “Spoken by the Hand, Heart by the Eye” which is the selection of his calligraphy works spanning 25 years, was published in English and Arabic in 2007.

    Özçay has had many solo exhibitions, and has participated in numerous international group exhibitions in Turkey and abroad. He has also served as a jury member in many international calligraphy competitions. He has established his own style in colored scribble (karalama) panels which are written with celi sülüs and celi nesih scripts. His calligraphy works can be seen in various national and international museums and private collections. Currently, Özçay continues to work at his workshop in Istanbul.
     
    Detailed Description:
     
    Item Number: 418
     
    Subject: Shahada in Thuluth style (There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His Prophet)
    Edition: Limited
    Calligrapher:  Mehmet Özçay
    Country of Origin: Turkey
    Size:   32 x 63 cm
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    Rumi's Garden is proud to present the contemporary traditional Islamic calligraphy of Mehmet Özçay from Turkey. Mehmet Özçay was born in Çankaya, Trabzon in 1961. He finished primary and middle school education in Gerede. He graduated from the Faculty of Theology at Atatürk University in 1986. He learned nesih and sülüs scripts from Fuat Başar, and obtained his professional license from the master.

    In 1986 and 1989, Özçay participated in the international calligraphy competitions, which were organized by the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) and won six prizes in various categories. In 1992, he copied and wrote the Holy Qur’an and published it in 1992. The book “Spoken by the Hand, Heart by the Eye” which is the selection of his calligraphy works spanning 25 years, was published in English and Arabic in 2007.

    Özçay has had many solo exhibitions, and has participated in numerous international group exhibitions in Turkey and abroad. He has also served as a jury member in many international calligraphy competitions. He has established his own style in colored scribble (karalama) panels which are written with celi sülüs and celi nesih scripts. His calligraphy works can be seen in various national and international museums and private collections. Currently, Özçay continues to work at his workshop in Istanbul.
     
    Detailed Description:
     
    Item Number: 414
     
    Subject: Shahada in Thuluth style (There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His Prophet)
    Edition: Limited
    Calligrapher:  Mehmet Özçay
    Country of Origin: Turkey
    Size:  24 x 67 cm
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    The Mevlevi Order was founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi (popularly referred to as Rumi) in 1273. Rumi was a 13th century Islamic spiritual leader who was born in 1207 in Balkh in present day Afghanistan. With the onset of the Mongol invasion of Central Asia between 1215 and 1220, Rumi’s family journeyed westwards, eventually settling down in Konya, Anatolia, in present day Turkey.

    One of Rumi’s most fruitful friendships was with Shams-e Tabrizi, whom he met at the age of 37. Among other things, Shams had introduced Rumi to music, poetry and dance as a mystical way of connecting with the divine. It is these artistic expressions that are the characteristic features of the whirling dervishes of the Mevlevi Order, which was founded after Rumi’s death by his son, Sultan Veled, his disciple Çelebi Hüsamettin, and his grandson Ulu Arif Çelebi.

    The Mevlevi Sema ceremony is arguably the Order’s most distinct practice, and is said to have been created by Rumi himself. Its form, however, was only finalized sometime in the 15 th century by one of Rumi’s great-grandsons, Pir Adil Çelebi. The Mevlevi Order became a respected school of Sufism (the esoteric dimension of Islam). Moreover, a blood relation was formed between the Order and the Ottoman imperial dynasty when one of Rumi’s descendants, Devlet Hatun, married Sultan Bayezid I.

    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 199

    Photo: Whirling Dervishes in Galata Mawlawi House in Turkey
    Date of original photograph:1870
    Type: Photo printed on  high-quality matt photograph paper
    Size: A4

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    Item Number: 198


    Photo: Prayer in the Sahara by the Descendants of Baranis Berbers in Algeria
    Date of Original Photo:1800s
    Type: Photo printed on  high-quality matt photograph paper
    Size: A4

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    Lehnert & Landrock were a German-Bohemian photography duo. Their hand-tinted photographs featured Egyptian and Tunisian monuments and, more controversially, eroticized images of Arab women posed within harem scenes. Lehnert & Landrock’s photographs attempted to embody a romanticized vision of the Arab world held by Europe, intetended to titillate rather than serve as a true document of everyday life in the region. The artists were Rudolf Franz Lehnert, born on July 13, 1878 in Velká Úpa, Bohemia, and Ernst Heinrich Landrock, born on August 4, 1878 in Reinsdorf, Germany. Upon returning from a trip to North Africa, Lehnert met Landrock in Switzerland and the two decided to go into business together. Lehnert acted as the photographer and Landrock organized the expeditions, photolab, and marketing of postcards, posters, and prints. They lived both in Tunis and Cairo but periodically made trips back to Europe throughout their lives. Today, their works can be found in the collections of the Penn Museum Archives in Philadelphia, the Musée de l’Elysée in Lausanne, and the San Francisco State University Museum, among others. Lehnert died on January 16, 1948 in Reydef, Tunisia, and Landrock died on April 30, 1966 in Kreuzlingen, Switzerland.

    Detailed Description:

    Item Number: 196

    Photo: Ouled Nail couple from Algeria
    Date of original photograph: 1904
    Type: Photo printed on  high-quality matt photograph paper
    Size: A4
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