Item Number: 198
Photo: Prayer in the Sahara by the Descendants of Baranis Berbers in Algeria
Date of Original Photo:1800s
Type: Photo printed on high-quality matt photograph paper
Item Number: 603
High quality canvas replica of The Ashtiname of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ. It measures 57 x 112 cm which is the same size as the original document. For an additional £10, an in-house certificate will be provided containing a translation of the letter.
The Ashtiname of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, also known as the Covenant or Testament (Testamentum), is a document which is a charter ratified by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ granting protection and other privileges to the followers of Jesus the Nazarene, given to the Christian monks of Saint Catherine's Monastery. It is sealed with an imprint of Prophet Muhammad's ﷺ hand.
According to the monks' tradition, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ frequented the monastery and had great relationships and discussions with the Sinai fathers. Several certified historical copies are displayed in the library of St Catherine, some of which are witnessed by the judges of Islam to affirm historical authenticity. The monks claim that during the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17), the original document was seized from the monastery by Ottoman soldiers and taken to Sultan Selim I's palace in Istanbul for safekeeping. A copy was then made to compensate for its loss at the monastery.
Āshtīnāmeh is a Persian word meaning "Book of Peace", a Persian term for a treaty and covenant.
English Translation of the Ashtiname by Anton F. Haddad
This is a letter which was issued by Mohammed, Ibn Abdullah, the Messenger, the Prophet, the Faithful, who is sent to all the people as a trust on the part of God to all His creatures, that they may have no plea against God hereafter. Verily God is Omnipotent, the Wise. This letter is directed to the embracers of Islam, as a covenant given to the followers of Jesus the Nazarene in the East and West, the far and near, the Arabs and foreigners, the known and the unknown.
This letter contains the oath given unto them, and he who disobeys that which is therein will be considered a disbeliever and a transgressor to that whereunto he is commanded. He will be regarded as one who has corrupted the oath of God, disbelieved His Testament, rejected His Authority, despised His Religion, and made himself deserving of His Curse, whether he is a Sultan or any other believer of Islam. Whenever Christian monks, devotees and pilgrims gather together, whether in a mountain or valley, or den, or frequented place, or plain, or church, or in houses of worship, verily we are [at the] back of them and shall protect them, and their properties and their morals, by Myself, by My Friends and by My Assistants, for they are of My Subjects and under My Protection.
I shall exempt them from that which may disturb them; of the burdens which are paid by others as an oath of allegiance. They must not give anything of their income but that which pleases them—they must not be offended, or disturbed, or coerced or compelled. Their judges should not be changed or prevented from accomplishing their offices, nor the monks disturbed in exercising their religious order, or the people of seclusion be stopped from dwelling in their cells.
No one is allowed to plunder these Christians, or destroy or spoil any of their churches, or houses of worship, or take any of the things contained within these houses and bring it to the houses of Islam. And he who takes away anything therefrom, will be one who has corrupted the oath of God, and, in truth, disobeyed His Messenger.
Jizya should not be put upon their judges, monks, and those whose occupation is the worship of God; nor is any other thing to be taken from them, whether it be a fine, a tax or any unjust right. Verily I shall keep their compact, wherever they may be, in the sea or on the land, in the East or West, in the North or South, for they are under My Protection and the testament of My Safety, against all things which they abhor.
No taxes or tithes should be received from those who devote themselves to the worship of God in the mountains, or from those who cultivate the Holy Lands. No one has the right to interfere with their affairs, or bring any action against them. Verily this is for aught else and not for them; rather, in the seasons of crops, they should be given a Kadah for each Ardab of wheat as provision for them, and no one has the right to say to them 'this is too much', or ask them to pay any tax.
As to those who possess properties, the wealthy and merchants, the poll-tax to be taken from them must not exceed twelve drachmas a head per year.
They shall not be imposed upon by anyone to undertake a journey, or to be forced to go to wars or to carry arms; for the Muslims have to fight for them. Do no dispute or argue with them, but deal according to the verse recorded in the Quran, to wit: ‘Do not dispute or argue with the People of the Book but in that which is best’ [29:46]. Thus they will live favored and protected from everything which may offend them by the Callers to religion (Islam), wherever they may be and in any place they may dwell.
Should any Christian woman be married to a Muslim, such marriage must not take place except after her consent, and she must not be prevented from going to her church for prayer. Their churches must be honored and they must not be withheld from building churches or repairing convents.
They must not be forced to carry arms or stones; but the Muslims must protect them and defend them against others. It is positively incumbent upon every one of the follower of Islam not to contradict or disobey this oath until the Day of Resurrection and the end of the world.
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Rumi's Garden is proud to present the contemporary traditional Islamic calligraphy of Ali Hüsrevoğlu from Turkey. Ali Hüsrevoğlu was born in Afyonkarahisar in 1956. He graduated from the Faculty of Theology at Marmara University in 1979. Hüsrevoğlu began learning calligraphy in 1974. He received a professional license from the great master Hamid Aytaç in 1982. In 1992, Hüsrevoğlu prepared the calligraphy for the project of the Medine-i Münevvere in the Mescid-i Nebevi. Since 1993, he has had many solo exhibitions and has participated in numerous group exhibitions and conferences in Turkey and abroad. He has received many awards for his calligraphy works. Currently, Hüsrevoğlu continues to create classic and modern calligraphy works at his workshop in Istanbul.
The verses of Ayat al-Kursi translates to:
Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave ? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.
Item Number: 402
Country of Origin: Turkey
Subject: Ayat al-Kursi
Calligrapher: Ali Hüsrevoğlu
Size: 48 x 48 cm